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Chicago Style Guide: Notes & Bibliography System

A guide to citing sources and formatting papers in Chicago Style.

Notes & Bibliography Overview

Citations in the Notes & Bibliography system have two parts: the footnote (or note) and the bibliography.

Footnotes

To see how footnotes should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on Footnotes.

  • The purpose of the footnote is to show the reader where a quote or paraphrase in your paper comes from.
  • Footnotes are indicated by a superscript number at the end of a quote or paraphrase in your paper, like this.
  • Details about the source are then listed at the bottom of the same page (hence the name footnote).

Bibliography

To see how the bibliography should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on Bibliography.

  • The purpose of the bibliography is to provide an organized list of all the sources used in the paper, and to enable the reader to locate the sources.
  • The bibliography is a separate page at the end of the paper.

Intro to Chicago Workshops

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Examples

Below are examples of footnotes and bibliography entries for different types of sources. If you're not sure which example to use, Ask a Librarian.

Scholarly Journals

Magazines and Newspapers

See The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Ed. Citation Quick Guides for more examples:

Personal Interviews and Personal Communications

See The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Ed. Citation Quick Guides for more examples:

Other Web Sources

See The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Ed. Citation Quick Guides for more examples: