Heads up! Everything on this page is about the Author-Date system
. It's very different
from the Notes & Bibliography
system. (Notes & Bibliography is more commonly used at Valencia.) Before using content on this page, please verify which system your professor has required.
Citations in the Author-Date system have two parts: a parenthetical in-text citation and the Reference List.
To see how parenthetical in-text citations should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on Parenthetical Citations.
- The purpose of the in-text citation is to show the reader where a quote or paraphrase in your paper comes from.
- The in-text citation appears in parenthesis after a quote or paraphrase in your paper.
- The in-text citation includes the author(s') name(s) and the date of publication (that's why it's called, author-date)! A page number may also be included.
To see how the Reference List should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on the Reference List.
- The purpose of the Reference List is to provide an organized list of all the sources used in the paper, and to enable the reader to locate the sources.
- The Reference List is a separate page at the end of the paper.