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Chicago Style Guide: Author-Date System

A guide to citing sources and formatting papers in Chicago Style.

Author-Date Overview

Heads up! Everything on this page is about the Author-Date system. It's very different from the Notes & Bibliography system. (Notes & Bibliography is more commonly used at Valencia.)  Before using content on this page, please verify which system your professor has required.


Citations in the Author-Date system have two parts: a parenthetical in-text citation and the Reference List.

In-Text Citations

To see how parenthetical in-text citations should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on Parenthetical Citations.

  • The purpose of the in-text citation is to show the reader where a quote or paraphrase in your paper comes from.
  • The in-text citation appears in parenthesis after a quote or paraphrase in your paper.
  • The in-text citation includes the author(s') name(s) and the date of publication (that's why it's called, author-date)! A page number may also be included.

Reference List

To see how the Reference List should look in a student paper, open the Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheet on the Reference List.

  • The purpose of the Reference List is to provide an organized list of all the sources used in the paper, and to enable the reader to locate the sources.
  • The Reference List is a separate page at the end of the paper.

Watch this video for help citing in Author-Date style. (4 min. 29 sec.) Click CC to view closed captions.

Author-Date Examples

Visit these websites to find sample citations in the Author-Date system. If you need further assistance, Ask a Librarian.