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MLA 9 Workshop: In-Text How to

Rules for In-text Citation


  • the first part of the full citation, usually the author's last name, but sometimes the title.
  • a specific location (usually a page number, but could be a line number, or a time)

Book or Article with Page Numbers

For any book or article that has page numbers:


  • the author's last name
  • the page number

For example: (Rodriguez 42)

This is the most basic example.

Sources Without an Author


If the source has no author, use


  • a shortened version of the title


For example: ("Using In-Text" 6)

This is a shortened version of the title "Using In-Text Citation in an MLA-Formatted Paper." Use enough of the title so that your reader will be to identify the correct entry on your works cited page.



Video, Film, or Audio

For video or audio files, include the time stamp in an in-text citation, if one is available, with the author's name or a shortened title.

Author example: (Cuddy 4:27-29)

For full-length documentaries and films, the title is italicized: (Latin American 4:41-48) for Latin American Women Artists: 1915-1995.

For shorter videos and television episodes, the title is placed in quotation marks: ("Four Marks" 12:57-13:01) for the episode "Four Marks" from the television series The Witcher.

No Page Numbers


If a source, such as a website, does not have page numbers, use


  • the author's last name


For example: (Williams)

Do not invent page numbers. If the information is printed out and the printer numbered the pages, do not use those numbers.


Multiple Authors

If a source has two authors, use

  • the last name of each person.

For example (Johnson and Seguin 42).

If a source has three or more authors, use

  • the last name of the first person and et al.

For example (Johnson et al. 53).

Practice Links

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