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Fake News and Information Literacy: Tools to Evaluate Information

Tools to Evaluate News Sources

There are many tools available to assist with evaluating whether news sources are fake or real. See below for some of these resources which should be used together with your own critical analysis of the source of information. 

CRAAP Test Statistics
Evaluating News Articles Apps
Fact Checking Image Reverse Search

Additional Readings


Image Reverse Search

Google Images

Upload an image
  1. On or any Images results page, click Search by image Search by image.
  2. Click Upload an image.
  3. Click Choose file.
  4. Select the image from your computer.
Drag & drop an image into the search box

If you're on Chrome or Firefox 4+, you can drag an image from your computer into the search box.

  1. Visit
  2. On your computer, click the image you want to search for.
  3. While holding down the mouse, drag the image into the search box.
Search using an image URL
  1. On any website, right-click an image and select Copy image URL.
  2. On or any Images results page, click Search by image Search by image.
  3. Click Paste image URL.
  4. Paste the URL you copied into the box.
  5. Click Search by image.
Right-click an image on a site (Chrome & Firefox)


  1. Right-click any image you see on a website or in search results.
  2. Click Search Google for this image.
  3. A new tab will open with your results.


  1. Download the Search by Image extension.
  2. Right-click any image you see on a website or in search results.
  3. Click Search Google with this image.
  4. A new tab will open with your results.


TinEye is an image search and recognition company. We are experts in computer vision, pattern recognition, neural networks and machine learning. Our mission is to make your images searchable.

(from About Us

TinEye also provides browser extensions for Firefox, Chrome, Safari, IE, and Opera to make reverse image searching even easier. Their results page differs from Google Images, but provides an extensive listing of where the image has appeared online. Filters allow you to see not only Best Match, but Most Changed, Newest, and Oldest as well as by collection so that you can see how the image was used by a particular website. 

Additional Resources

Evaluating News

Evaluating News Articles

Fact Checking

We are a nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics. We monitor the factual accuracy of what is said by major U.S. political players in the form of TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news releases. Our goal is to apply the best practices of both journalism and scholarship, and to increase public knowledge and understanding. is a project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. The APPC was established by publisher and philanthropist Walter Annenberg to create a community of scholars within the University of Pennsylvania that would address public policy issues at the local, state and federal levels.

(from, Our Mission) 




Hoaxy visualizes the spread of claims and related fact checking online. A claim may be a fake news article, hoax, rumor, conspiracy theory, satire, or even an accurate report. Anyone can use Hoaxy to explore how claims spread across social media. You can select any matching fact-checking articles to observe how those spread as well. We track the social sharing of links to stories published by two types of websites: (1) Independent fact-checking organizations, such as,, and, that routinely fact check unverified claims. (2) Sources that often publish inaccurate, unverified, or satirical claims according to lists compiled and published by reputable news and fact-checking organizations. 

Hoaxy visualizes two aspects of the spread of claims and fact checking: temporal trends and diffusion networks. Temporal trends plot the cumulative number of Twitter shares over time. The user can zoom in on any time interval. Diffusion networks display how claims spread from person to person. Each node is a Twitter account and two nodes are connected if a meme (link to a story) is passed between those two accounts via retweets, replies, quotes, or mentions. The color of a connection indicates the type of information: claims and fact checks. Clicking on an edge reveals the tweet(s) and the link to the shared story; clicking on a node reveals claims shared by the corresponding user. The network may be pruned for performance.

We do not decide what is true or false. Not all claims you can visualize on Hoaxy are false, nor can we track all false stories. We aren’t even saying that the fact checkers are 100% correct all the time. You can use the Hoaxy tool to observe how unverified stories and the fact checking of those stories spread on public social media. We welcome users to click on links to fact-checking sites to see what they’ve found in their research, but it’s up for you to evaluate the evidence about a claim and its rebuttal.  

(from, Frequently Asked Questions About Hoaxy)


PolitiFact is a fact-checking website that rates the accuracy of claims by elected officials and others who speak up in American politics. PolitiFact is run by editors and reporters from the Tampa Bay Times, an independent newspaper in Florida, as is PunditFact, a site devoted to fact-checking pundits. The PolitiFact state sites are run by news organizations that have partnered with the Times. The state sites and PunditFact follow the same principles as the national site.

(from, The Principles of PolitiFact, PunditFact and the Truth-O-Meter)


The web site is (and always has been) a completely independent, self-sufficient entity wholly owned by its operators and funded through advertising revenues. Neither the site nor its operators has ever received monies from (or been engaged in any business or editorial relationship with), any sponsor, political party, religious group, outside business organization, or government agency that is not disclosed here.

(from, About