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ENC 1102 : (Strong-Robinson Smith): What is Communication?

This guide will provide students with an understanding of the different communication types and style while accessing the library databases.

Communication is...

Communication is the two-way exchange of opinions, news and information by writing, speech or gestures including body language and facial reactions.

What did he say? What didn't he say?

What type of communication is this?  What gave it away? What were some of the communication cues?

Communication Types

  • Verbal Communication
    • Use of voice (strong and confident)
    • Active Listening
    • Avoid filler words such as, "um," "like," "so," or "yeah"
  • Nonverbal Communication
    • Body language (open or closed)
    • Gestures
    • Facial expressions
    • Emoting feelings (fidgety, nervious, etc.)
  • Written Communication
    • Letters
    • Emails
    • Blogs
    • Chats
    • Pamphlets
    • Books 
    • Memos
  • Visual Communication
    • Photographs
    • Art 
    • Film
    • Chart/Graph
    • Presentation

Communication Styles

  • AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals express their feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in a way that violates the rights of others. Thus, aggressive communicators are verbally and/or physically abusive. 
    • Dominate
    • Control
    • Criticize
    • Attack
    • Loud
    • Overbearing
    • Rude
  • .PASSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings,   protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs.
    • Fail to assert for themselves
    • Allow others to deliberately or inadvertently infringe on their rights
    • Fail to express their feelings, needs, or opinions
    • Tend to speak softly or apologetically
    • Exhibit poor eye contact and slumped body posture
  • PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals appear passive on the surface but are really acting out anger in a subtle, indirect, or behind-the-scenes way.
    • Mutter to themselves rather than confront the person or issue
    • Difficulty acknowledging their anger
    • Use facial expressions that don't match how they feel - i.e., smiling when angry
    • Use sarcasm
    • Deny there is a problem
    • Appear cooperative while purposely doing things to annoy and disrupt
    • Use subtle sabotage to get even
  • ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals clearly state their opinions and feelings, and firmly advocate for their rights and needs without violating the rights of others.
    • State needs and wants clearly, appropriately, and respectfully
    • Express feelings clearly, appropriately, and respectfully
    • Use “I” statements
    • Communicate respect for others
    • Listen well without interrupting
    • Makes good eye contact
    • Speak in a calm and clear tone of voice
    • Relaxed body posture
    • Connected to others
    • Competent and in control
    • Does not allow others to abuse or manipulate them
    • Stand up for their rights
  • MANIPULATIVE COMMUNICATION is scheming, calculating and shrewd.  These communicators are skilled at influencing or controlling others to their own advantage.  
    • Cunning
    • Controlling of others in an insidious way - for example, by sulking
    • Asking Indirectly for needs to be met
    • Making others feel obliged or sorry for them
    • Patronizing, envious, ingratiating, high pitch voice
    • Pouty facial expression
    • Uses 'artificial' tears