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SPC 1608 (Holmes): In Speech Citations

This guide is designed to help students with library research as they complete assignments in Professor Holmes's speech course.

Verbal Citations

Verbal citations are included in your speech as you are delivering it.

They should include:

  • author
  • title
  • publication
  • date

Verbal citations help explain the authority and currency of the sources and refer your listener to your complete list of full citations. Who provided this information? Is this an authoritative source (The New York Times vs. Joe's Blog)? Is it recent information?

Image Citations

The MLA and APA publication manuals are designed for published written work and do not give explicit guidelines for how to cite audiovisual materials used as a visual aid while speaking, so here are some suggested guidelines:

If your picture, chart, table, audio file, or video file

  • provides data that you are using to support your point.
  • was not created by you from your own data.

cite it within your speech and provide a full citation on your Works Cited or References page.


To cite within your speech, insert a line underneath the chart, table, audio or video file including at least

  • Source:
  • the author or creator (This might be an organization such as the U.S. Census Bureau.)

Including at least this much information will lead your audience to the correct entry on your works cited page.


Also consider including additional information if it will help your audience understand the context, such as:

  • the title (For example, if you were including a video you found on YouTube, it might be helpful for your audience to know the name of it.)
  • the date (If this information is not given elsewhere, consider including it, especially for data tables and graphs, cases in which the date is important.)
  • the organization or web site (This would be helpful in such cases as the YouTube video; your audience might like to know that you found the video on YouTube.)
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